Saturday, June 6, 2015

Dominique-René de Lerma: Register Of Black Professional Concert Instrumentalists

Sanford Allen

Nokuthula Ngwenyama

The following is a first draft, offered for additions and corrections from interested participants (contributions will be acknowledged).  The current concern is a listing of all the names which should be included; much additional material on those listed has not yet been registered.  The third column indicates city of activity and (in italics) known affiliation.  Biographical sketch, bibliography, repertoire and discography should also be added for each person. In addition to the projected functions, the potential for term and graduate papers might be considered.  All comments will be welcomed and  may be offered to

Dominique-René de Lerma

Ali, Lucinda E.                       R,SP    Chicago IL
Allen, Sanford                        R,SP    New York NY
Apple, Darwyn                       SP
Archibald, Amber                   SP
Baggini, Richard                    SC
Baker, Tim                              R         Durham NC
Baptiste, Carlos                      R         New York NY
Barroso, Luisa                        SC
Bedney, Ann Marie                R
Belen, Danille                         SC
Bello, Ali                                SP
Bello, Joanna                          SP
Benavides, Romulo                SP
Boga, Jeffrey                          R,SP    Atlanta GA
Brown, Brandon                     R         Jacksonville NC
Brown, Tania                          R         Norfolk VA
Burnett, David                        R,SP    New York NY
Burton, Clive                          R
Cabeza, Maia                          SC
Caesar-Kapotech, Verdua      SC
Cardenas, Michelle                SC
Carlyss, Earl                           R         New York NY
Castelli, Christina                  SC
Castro, Aisha Syed                 SC
Cherry, Nicole                        R         Prairie View TX
Clarke, Ronald                        R         Tijunga CA
Collymore, Winston               R         Morehead City NC
Conlon-Gutierrez, Maureen   SC,SP
Constant, Pierre                      SC
Corbett, Mary                         R         Tampa FL
Cotter-Buco, Mariana            SC
Coyne, Joshua
Crosby, Vivian                       SC
DaCosta, Noel
Dargan, James                        R,SC    Durham NC
Davis, Monica                        R,SC   
Duckett, Alfred                                   Jackson MS -- Jackson State U         
Dworkin, Aaron
Edwards, Mellasenah             R         Baltimore MD
Elliot, Brendon                       SC
Escalante, Isabel                     SC
Estava, Evelyn                        SP
Farrakhan, Louis                    R         Chicago IL
Fernandez, Mildred                SC
Fitzgerald, James                   R         Owing Mills MD
Flores, José                             SP
Flores, Tristan                        SC
Florido, Jesús                         SP
Gavilan, Ilmar                        SC
Gomez, Ricardo Hamaury      SC
Gonzales, Alex                       SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Gonzales, Yemi                      SC
Gonzalez, Julimar                  SC
Goosby, Randall                     SL
Green-Hill, Mariana               R,SC    New York NY
Gregory, Annelle                    SC
Gutierrez, Sheena                   SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Hall, Howard                          R         New York NY
Hall-Thompson, Kelly*         R,SP    New York NY -- New Jersey SO
Harris, Michelle                     R         Rochester NY
Harris, Shelby                         SC
Hartney, Bradley                    R         Atlanta GA
Henry, Marianne                    R,SP    Prairie View YX
Hernandez-Luch, Bryan         SC       -- Catalyst Quartet
Horne, Ashley                         R,SP    Jersey City NJ
Howard, Dianne                      R         Pittsford NY
Hughes, Tami Lee                  SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Jackson, Monica                     SP
Jackson, Scott                         SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
James, Dwyane                       R         Brooklyn NY
Johnson, Gareth                      R,SC    Wellington FL
Johnson, Gerald                      SC
Jones-Madrid, Kenneth          SC
Jordan, Rachel                        R         New Orleans LA
Jorgensen, Michael                R         Cincinnati OH
Joseph, Victoria                      SC
Joubert, Rainel                       SC
Joyner, Amyr                          SC
Kelley, Owen                          SC
Kelley, Velda                          SP
Laster, Gwen                          R,SP    Brooklyn NY
Latin, Gwen                            SP
Leal-Santiestiban, Sandro      SC
Leon, Nicole                           SC
Lewis, Patmore                       R                    
Linney, Allesandro                 R         Charlotte NC
Littlejohn, John "Adidam"*   R,SP    Vancouver BC
Loftus, Mary                           SC
Lombard, Kyle                       R,SC    St. Louis MO
Lopes, Gregorio                      SC
Lowery-George, Karen           R         Silver Spring MD
Luck, Megan                           SC
Matthews, Stephanie              SC
May, Michelle                        SP
McNeely, Marie-Elise            SC
Mettinbrink, Emilia               SP
Monroe, Diane                        R         New York NY
Montgomery, Jessie               R,SP -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Moore, Marcia                        R                    
Morris, Quinton                      R         Seattle WA -- Seattle U
Moseley, Sarah                       SP
Moudou, Eileen                      SC
Muhammad, Henri                 R         Buffalo NY
Murray, Tai                            R,SC    New York NY
Nebyu, Samuel                       SC
Nelson, Elisha                        R         Cleveland OH
Norpoth, Jannina                    SC
Nunnaly, Wendi                     R         Virginia Beach VA
Ochieng, Trevor                     R,SC    Wyandach NJ
Orman, Javier                         SC
Payton, Phillip                        SC,SP
Penrose-Whitmore, Clayton  SC
Perez, Karla Donahew            SC       -- Catalyst Quartet; Sphinx Virtuosi
Pereza de Webb, Marion        SP
Perrault, Jean "Rudy"*           R         Duluth MN -- U of Minnesota-Duluth
Prescott, Ruby                        R         Durham NC
Price, Constance                     R,SP    Detroit MI
Quinnett, Robyn                     SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Ramirez, Juan                         SP
Ramos, David                         SC
Ramos, Elizabeth                   SC
Ramos, Manuel                      SP
Ray, Trujillo                           SC
Reeves, Derek                         R,SP    Indianapolis IN
Reynolds, Michon                  R         Atlanta GA
Reynolds, Tarrah                    R,SP    New York NY
Riley, Meredith                      SC
Rincón, Pedro                         SP
Rio, Eduardo                           SC
Roberts, Ingrid                        SC
Romero, Maria                       SC
Ross, Chaunte                         SC
Rowe, Booker T.*                   R         Philadelphia PA -- Philadelphia O
Rubio, Carlos                          SP
Salazar, Francisco                  SP
Sanders, Phyllis                      SP
Sanderson, John Martin         SC
Sanderson, Maria                   SC
Santana, Matthew Leslie        SC
Sellers, Leroy                         R         Charlotte NC
Sergiani-Velázquez, Jeremias SC
Stewart, Curtis                        R         Rochester NY
Stoddard, Ariel                       R,SC               
Story, Roslyn                          R,SP    Fort Worth TX -- Fort Worth S
Stuart, Joy                               R         New York NY
Switala, Alexandra                 SC
Switala, Robert                       SC
Sykes, Chenoa                        SP
Thomas-McGlone, Kathleen* R        Philadelphia PA
Trotter, Linda                         SP
Underwood, Naira                  SC
Uriote, Elena                          SC
Urrutia, Alejandro                  SP
Venegas, Eddie                       SP
Walker, Adrian                       R         St. Louis MO
Walker, Gregory*                   R         Boulder CO -- Boulder PO
Watkins, Maria                       R         Winston-Salem NC
Watkins, Sean                         R         Winston-Salem NC
Watson, Christopher              R         Rochester NY
Wells, Orlando                       R
White, Hannah                        SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
White, Melissa                       R,SC    New York NY
Williams, Ade                        SC
Witchger, Luke                       SC
Woods, Christopher               SC
Yancy, Chala*                        R,SP    New York NY
Yarbo-Davenport, Anyango   SC
Yarborough, David                 R         Baltimore MD
Yokley, Edith                         R         New York NY
Yokley, Edith                         SP
Zabewa-Martinez, James       SC

Amos, Jason                           SC
Anderson, Alva                       R,SP
Archibald, Amber*                 R
Arnold, Jennifer                     SC
Arnold, Jennifer*                   R,SP
Baker, Beverly                        R         Virginia Beach VA
Baker, Renée                          R,SP    Chicago IL
Battle, Gerald                         R         Durham NC'
Blacksher, Maryann               R                    
Branch, Rhodena                    R         Huntsville AL
Brice, Richard                        R         New York NY
Brown, Al
Brown, Debbie                        R         Durham NC
Casimir, Michael                    SC
Ceparano-Wilkens, Janeen*   R         Rochester NY
Coleman, James                     SP
Davis, George                         R         North Bergen NJ
DeShazor, Leslie                    SP
Dixon, Tracey                         R         New York NY
Dugan, Lianna                        SC
Duque, Alejamdo                   SC
Edwards, Kenneth                  R         New York NY
Edwards, Renard*                  R         Philadelphia PA -- Philadelphia O
Fankhauser, Lena                   SC
Flores, José Gerardo               SP
Garner-Morris, Crystal          R         New York NY
Garza, Claire                          SC
Goldberg, Rachel                    SC
Gonzales, Andrew                  SC
Greene, Mya                           SC
Griffin, Andrew                      SC
Hackney, Antoine                   SP
Hatton, Celia                          SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Hernandez, Juan-Miguel        SC
Houston, William, III "Bill"* R         Philadelphia PA
Hummings, Amadi                 R,SP    Norfolk VA
Insell, Judith*                         R         New York NY
Jenkins, Christopher               R,SC    -- Catalyst Quartet
Jones, Caroline                       R         Greensboro NC
Kelley, Dana                           SC
Kleene, Morgan                      R         Rochester NY
Laraia, Paul                            SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Laraia, Steven Orben              SC
Laraia, Tiffany                       SC
Lawrence, Deidre                   R,SP    Prairie View TX
Lay-Rodriguez, Daniel           SC
Lenares, Adriana                    SP
Lewis, Edward                        SP
Long, Michael                        SC
Lopez, Yunior                         SC
Lundy, Anne                           SP
Madison, John                        R,SP    Ann Arbor MI
Marchan, Samuel                   SP
McLeod, Marisha                   R         Los Angeles CA
Merritt, Romona                     R,SP    Birmingham AL -- Alabama S
Mitchell, Aundrey                  R         Newark NJ
Moseley, Sarah                       SP
Nash, Taliaferro                     R,SC               
Neely, Madeleine                   R,SP    Midland TX
Nelson, Elisha                        SP
Ngwenyama, Nokuthula*       R
Okpebholo, Dorothy               SC
Osorio, Santiago                     SC
Pajaro-van de Stadt, Milena   SC
Parrimore, Catlin                    SC
Perry-Stinner, Shannon          R         Louisville KY
Peterson, Chauncey                R         Miami FL
Phillips, Vannia                      R         Philadelphia PA
Potts, Kalla                             SC
Prescott, Camille                    R         Durham NC
Prior, Aaron                            SP
Ramirez, Edmundo                 SP
Reeves, Derek                         R         Fort Wayne IN
Ross, Hannah                          SC
Sainphor, Teddy                     R         Rochester NY
Shaw, James                           SC
Shelly, Omar                          SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Shuford, Kevonna                   SC
Simpson, Michael                  R         Fort Myers FL
Smith, Dawn Michelle*         R
Smith, Yvonne                        SC
Spincer, Richard                     R         New York NY
St. Jacques, Carl                     R,SC,SP          -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Sylvester, Kevin                     SC
Taylor, George                       R         Rochester NY
Thomas, Whittney                  SC
Thompson, Marcus                 R         Boston MA -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Vante, Barbara                        SC
Vela, Fernando                       SC
Watts, Shania                         SC
Webe, Danielle                       SC
Wilkinson, Nina                     R         Philadelphia PA
Williams, Mira                       SC

Arundale, Roberto                  SC
Barcia-Colombo, Mia            SC
Bennett, Tanya                       R,SP    Farmington MI
Black, Katherine                     SC
Cabezas, Gabriel                    SC
Cameron, Michael                  R,SP    Prairie View TX
Cañón-Valencia, Santiago      SC
Carrasco, Juan-Salvador        SC
Chandler, Idris                        R         Durham NC
Coleman, Damon                    R         Toledo OH
Comer, Cheryl                        SP
Cooper, James                        R         Philadelphia PA -- Chamber O of Philadelphia
Cox, Alexander                       SC
Crutcher, Ronald                    R         Austin TX
Elliott, Anthony                      R         Ann Arbor MI
Elliott, Sterling                       SC
Folson, Eileen                         SP
Garcia, Diego                         R         Rochester NY
Gonzalez, Josue                      SC
Gotay, David                          SP
Greenwich, Mei                      R         New York NY
Hicks,Yvonne                         R         New York NY
Holland, Christopher              R         Atlanta GA
Holley, Timothy                     SP
Howell, Clarissa                     SP
Jackson, Patrice                      R         New Haven CT
Jackson, Patrice                      SC
Johns, Norman                        SP
Johnson, Marcus                     SC
Johnson, Sam                          SP
Johnson, Samuel                     SC
Jones, Caleb*                          R,SC
Joyner, Khari                          SC
Lamprea, Christine                 SC
Lang, Jennifer*                       R         New York NY
Law, Ken                                R         Spartanburg SC
Lewis, Daryl                           SC
Liburd, Brandon                     R         Virginia Beach VA
Liscomb, Ron                         R         Philadelphia PA
Litvinenko, Anna Marie         SC
Mack, Elaine  `                       R         Chicago IL
Mariscal, Nicholas                 SC
Martin, Stamos                       R
Masdison, Earl
McDaniel, Prudence               R,SP    Columbus OH
Menchen, Derek                     SP
Menkiti, Ndidi                        R,SC
Mohave-Veglia, Pablo           SP
Moore, Kermit
Morales, Jesús                        SP
Moye, Eugene                         R         New York NY
Mtanga, Myrtil                       SC
Murphy, Ryan                         SC
Neysmith, Desmond               SC
Oliveira, Marilyn de               SC, SP
Orengo, Enrique                     SP
Ortega, Sebastian                   SC
Payton-Stevens, Joy               SC
Pereira, Daniel                        SP
Prescott, Julius                       R         Durham NC
Price, Charis                           SP
Ramos, Mary Ann                  SC,SP
Richard, Joyce                        SC
Riley, Britton                          SC
Rivas, Aristedes                     SC
Rodriguez, Karlos                  SC       -- Catalyst Quartet; Sphinx Virtuosi
Rymer, Tony                           SC
Smith, Carl Wayne                 R         New York NY
Snowden-Rodriguez, Erica    SC
Snyder, Jared                          SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Sotelo, Victor                         SC
Stuart, Troy                            R         Baltimore MD
Taylor, Alexander                  SC
Thompson, Rupert                  R         New York NY
Thompson, Sarah                    SC
Valdepenas, Josue                  SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Vila, Francisco                       SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Watson, Terle                         R         Rochester NY
White, Donald                        R         Cleveland OH
Whittington, Tahira*              R,SC    New York NY
Wright, Donnie                       R         Shenandoah VA
Young, Owen*                        R         Boston MA -- Boston SO

Ali, Kelly                                R,SP    Rochester NY
Arredondo, Nicolas                SC
Belle, Maurice                        R         New York NY
Conyers, Joseph                      R,SC,SP          -- Grand Rapids S
Crawford, Michael                 SP
Davis, Arthur
Dixon, Lucille
Foley, Xavier                          SC       -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Harris, Benjamin                    SC
Holmes, Victor                       SC
Johnson, Christopher                          -- Sphinx Virtuosi
Johnson, William                   SP
Lewis, Derrick                        SP
Lovett, Lamarr                       R,SC    Boston MA
Maker, Greg                           R         New York NY
Marshall, Akil                        R         Boston MA
McKay, James                        R         St. Louis MO
Miller, Keith, Jr.                     SC
Morris, Anthony                     R         New York NY
Nwanoku, Chi-chi                  R         London UK -- O of the Age of Enlightenment
Okui, Kaliya                           R         New York NY
Olguin, Aaron                         SC
Pickett, Jacqueline                 R,SP    Atlanta GA
Robinson, Richard                  R         Detroit MI
Shakir, Sultan                         SP
Silva, Patricia Aparecida da   SC
Snyder, Laura                         SP
Stewart, Alan                          SP
Tancredi, Daniel                     SC
Thompson, Eric                      R,SC    Philadelphia PA
Tinsley, Fred                          SP
Villalobos, Nicolas                 SC
Wellington, Kiyoe                  SC

Neely, Patricia Ann                R         New York NY

Archer, Hal                             R
Atkinson Patricia                    SP,R    Detroit MI
Carter, Dennis                        SP
Castillo, Maria                       SP
Coleman-Paige, Valerie*       R         New York NY -- Imani Winds
Dines, Judy                             SP
Duckworth, Michael (+p)       SP,R    New York NY
Handy-Miller, D. Antoinette*                        1930-2002
Jones, Harold                          SP,R    New York NY
Kay-Clarke, Daine*                R         Philadelphia PA         
Lateef, Yusef**
Lozano, Danilo
McGill, Demarre                    R         Pittsburgh PA
Phillips, Bernard (+p)            R         New York NY
Reeves, Patricia                      R         Indianapolis IN
Roper, Tia                               R         New York NY
Thomasn-Redus, Caen (p)      SP

Beason, Roy (+Eh)                 SP,R    Cleveland OH
Brown, Melissa                      R        
Ferraiulio, James                    SP,R    New York NY
Gramer, Maureen                   R         New York NY
Greenwich, Arnold (bar)        R         New York NY
Horne, Aaron
Kramer, Maureen                   SP
McClain, Washington (bar)   R         Bloomington IN -- Indiana University
Pena, Melissa                         SP
Petty, Oscar                            R         Montclaire NJ
Reid, Paul Gladstone**
Ruiz, Gonzalo (bar)                R         Boston MA
Scruggs, Shea                         R         San Francisco CA -- San Francisco S
Smyles, Harry**                                 1918-2003
Spellman-Diaz, Toyin*          SP,R    New York -- Imani Winds
Talbot-Howard, Althea**                             
Wright, John                           R         Winston-Salem NC

Adam, Mariam                       SP
Adams, Mariam*                    R         New York NY -- Imani Winds
Cuffe, Kendra                         SP
Davis, Robert (bc)                  SP
Eley, Marcus                          R         Studio City CA
Harris, David                          SP
Keeling, Kenneth
Laing, Alex                             SP,R    Phoenix AZ
Lewis, Nicholas                      SP,R    Richmond VA
Lovato, Lori                            SP
McGill, Anthony                    SP,R    New York NY -- New York P (former: Met Opera O)
Millen, Steve                          SP
Miller, David                          R        
Patterson, Terrence                R         Jacksonville FL
Plummer, Tamara                   R        
Rodriguez, Jorge (+bc)           SP
Tipton, Chelsea, III                 R         Savannah GA

Ellis, Monica*                        R         New York NY -- Imani Winds
Harris, Darryl E., Sr.**                      -- Mississippi SO (2nd)
Hightower, Gail**                  SP,R    New York NY
Hood, Joshua                          SP,R    Charlotte NC
Jackson, Christopher              R         Rochester NY
Jones, Shawn (+cb)                SP
Miller, David                          R         New York NY
Oliver, Rufus David               R         San Francisco CA -- San Francisco O & Ballet
Washington, Lecolion**        SP,R    Memphis TN
Woodson, Joseph                    SP

Archer, Peter                          R
Austin, Jerome                       SP       
Bowie, Leonard                      R         Tallahassee FL
Dangerfield, Antonio             R         New York NY
DuMaine, Wayne                   SP,R    New York NY
Edmonds, Sean                       R         New York NY
Fitzgerald, Langston              SP
Foy, Leonard                          R         Murfreesboro TN
Givens, Koli                           SP
Howard, Robert                      R         Pittsford NY
Hunter, Billy Ray                   SP,R    New York NY -- Metropolitan Opera O
Isles, Nabate                           R         Rochester NY
Jones, Mark                            SP
Larkin, Charles                       SP
Mack, Rodney                        SP,R    Philadelphia PA
Paulozzi, Casey                      R        
Smith, Herbert
Thompson,Stanford                R
Wise, Wilmer

Ashby, Jerome                        R
Blacken, Linda                       R         New York NY
Cash, Nicole                           SP
Clarke, Deryck                       R         New York NY
Cooper, Jason                         R         Rochester NY
Lovinsky, Joe                         R         Washington DC
Morrow, David Byrd              R         New York NY
Rose, James                            SP
Scott, Jeffrey*                        R         New York NY -- Imani Winds
Sealy, Marshall                      SP,R    New York NY
Suarez, Alberto                       SP
Swanson, Crystal                    R         Jackson MS
Swepson, Crystal?
Watt, Robert                           R         Los Angeles CA
Whitworth, Roger                   SP
Williams, Greg                       SP
Williams, Larry                      SP
Williams, Mark                      SP

Blaine, Robert                        R         Monroe LA
Brewly, Gordon                      R         Rochester NY
Butler, Isrea                            R         Rochester NY
Giles, Anthony (+bt)              SP
Jackson, David                       SP,R    Greensboro NC
Lockhart, Otis                         SP
Lofton, John                           SP
Reaves, Chris                          R        
Sprott, Weston*                      R         New York NY -- Metropolitan Opera O
Thompkins, Kenneth              R         Detroit MI      
Wilson, Stephen                     SP
Young, Marques                     SP

Amis, Kenneth                        R        
Brown, Velvet*                      R         State College PA -- Penn State U
Clark, JaTtik                           SP
Flythe, Bernard                       SP
Jenkins, James                        R         Jacksonville FL
Roper, William                       R
Stubblefield, Roger                R         New York NY
White, Richard A.                  SP,R    -- New Mexico S
Young, Louis                          SP

Thurman, Demondrae

R not reprinted
Delphin, Wilfred (h)              R         Carbondale IL
Jennings, Patria Prattis
Matjias, Christian (c)             SP
Nguyen, Alexandra (pf)**
Roumain, Daniel Bernard (pf) SP

R not reprinted

Black, Rashida                        R        
Cleaver, Lydia                        SP
Garrett, Winifred                    R         Winston-Salem NC
Pilot, Ann Hobson*                R         Boston MA -- Boston SO
Terry-Ross, Patricia               SP

Adams, Timothy                     R         Pittsburgh PA
Cardwell, Douglass (t)           SP
Carroll, Raynor (+t)               SP
Crusoe, Michael *                  R         Seattle WA -- Seattle SO
Davis, Delton                          SP
Dowell, André                        SP,R
Garcia, Nicholas                     SP       
Garner, Yvonne                      R         New York NY
Holley, Andrea                       R        
Jones, Elayne
Jurkevich, Roxan (t)               SP       
Moorman, Wilson                  SP,R    Brooklyn NY
Piedra, Olman                         SP
Reid, Gerard                           SP,R    Atlanta GA
Smith, Warren (t)                   SP,R    New York NY
Verna, Xavier                         SP
Williams, Albert                    SP
Williams, Richard                  R         Rochester NY
Wilson, Rahmira                    R         Newark NJ

Woodwind msicians; African American woodwind musicians, American woodwind musician stubs, bassoonists, clarinetists, flautists, oboists.  : LLC Books , 2010. 218p.  (Wiki series).  ISBN 10:1157672809; ISBN 13:97811557672807.

Sources consulted and abbreviations:
(+bc) = also bass clarinet
(+bt) - also bass trombone
(+cb) = also contrabassoon
(+Eh) = also English horn
(+p) = also piccolo
(+t) = also timpani
(bar) = baroque
(bc) = bass clarinet
(c) = celeste
(h) = harpsichord
(p) = piccolo
(pf) = piano
(t) = timpani
* web site available
** see printout
O = orchestra
P = philharmonic
S = symphony
SC = Sphinx contestant
SL = Sphinx Competition Laureate
SO = symphony orchestra
SP = Sphinx Organization - Sphinx Symphony (http://www.sphinxmusicorg/artsts/symphony/list_symphony.html) [Includes Latinos; 1998-2010].
u == university

Dominique-René de Lerma 

Comments by email:

1) Hi  William and Dom,  A good start but I see considerable gaps which I will endeavour to enlighten. For some odd reason, the link shows as ‘not found’. However, I could get to it via the following

Useful but seriously out of date!!!  Just a few points.  Firstly have a quick look at  The term ‘Black Professional Concert Instrumentalists’ possibly needs defining. For example, I note that Wynton Marsalis (or others in his family) are not listed. Do we include all ‘throughout known history’. What are the defining musical boundaries. Are there any geographic boundaries. Finally, the one that has always caused me a lot of difficulty over the years is the term ‘Black’. I have always used the term ‘African origin and descent’ which is (in my view) more correct for the way that Americans use the term ‘Black’. The term ‘Black’ is not now commonly used in the UK in officialdom. Furthermore, a lot of so-called ‘Black’ people in the UK are increasingly disliking that term especially where there are elements of intermixing. Technically, nobody can actually be truly ‘black’ defined as ‘the very darkest colour owing to the absence of or complete absorption of light; the opposite of white’, need  I say more!  In many ways (including ‘political correctness) I believe that the term ‘Black’ and ‘White’ should be abandoned forever as a term to describe the ethnicity of any politically defined groups of mankind. I get even more confused by its use when meeting Melanesian people in Fiji (including fine musicians as they have a very strong choral tradition) or Aboriginal people in Australia. Both these indigenous groups of mankind display appearances that may lead people to describe them as ‘Black’.

Successive invasions in the UK, go back to the Romans (who brought over their African slaves from AD 43). There is increasing evidence to support the fact that there were migrations by people in ‘small boats’ from Africa that probably stretch back a couple of thousand years. Evidence of this exists quite near where I live in Devon as an example.  Enough politicising!  Kind regards  Mike [Michael S. Wright]

2) Dear Mike (et alia),
          I am responding only to the issue of racial terminology just now, because my loyal Hewlett Packard printer died a few days ago and is being replaced by a new model from the same firm tomorrow.  Somehow I think that is relevant.
          But I also want to say that your role in the entire picture continues to be most important to all of us, and always has been profoundly seminal!
          It may happen sooner in the U.S. than in the U.K., but we have known for years that this country is becoming very miscegenated -- not just with descendants from Africa and Europe, but with the Hispanics, Natives, and Asians as well.   This is much to the sheer horror of Republicans (this country's right wingers) who, because of their overt opposition to non-Aryans, will lose political power within a decade or two (Native Americans possibly erred with their immigration stance).  This despite one current political candidate (Ben Carson) "of African ancestry" who has joined them, turning his back on his own people.  We already saw this Quisling-Judas behaviour of Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State under the so lamentable presidency of Bush II.
          "Negro" was the term from the Spanish which for a long period was used in the U.S. in lower case -- not because such was the case in Spanish, but in disrespect, as was the case when translated as "Black", which still lacks upper-case treatment in most sources (e.g, the Chicago manual of style). Of course we know that is not the accurate description of skin color, no more than"White" correctly describes the color [colour] of Caucasians.  Fisk University send me some years ago to evaluate the paintings which had become the activity of a retired judge in St. Louis.  He told me that, when he took up painting, he purchased black paint to portray his people, quickly realizing his mistake.  We have known for a long time that Black people come in many shades, and that has been the basis for discrimination with those being described -- one drop of blood did the trick (transfusions could solve all our problems!).  As we began to reflect the inaccuracy, it made no difference to the National Association of Negro Musicians.  Bigots, of course, modified the word into one that is now unacceptable, unless one of the race is making reference to a fraternal group of otherwise undistinguished individuals.
          Then term "colored" was used, perhaps to avoid the association of the previous term with slavery but, when this went out of vogue, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People remained unmoved -- and now is embracing those of other colors as well.
          "Creole" has to be qualified.  It can apply to Gottschalk or to Dédé (the latter being a "Creole of color," which Gottschalk was not).
          More recently, and perhaps almost always politically motivated, we found "Black" replaced by "Afro American" and then "African American" but that left out others from the diaspora.  Not infrequently today, we find "persons of color" being used, which opens the door for a much larger membership (and takes up more space).
          When we are speaking of the culture, rather that the creator, the issue becomes even more complex.  Music by Villa-Lobos and George Gershwin exhibits undeniably Black influences, but only the first wife of Villa-Lobos had African ancestry, while Ulysses Kay almost never wrote anything remotely suggesting Africa.
          You are dead right, however.  None of these terms is accurate and becoming even less accurate -- even absurd.  Mixed marriages are no longer illegal in the United States, after several hundred years of mixed-race births -- the case of Thomas Jefferson being one of many whose offspring eventually passed without question for White. We can most readily use examples from our own families that involve non-White partners without citing William Grant Still, Marilyn Horne, Jeffrey Mumford, Gary Powell Nash, George Walker, or Aaron Dworkin.  What injustice is done to their children, whose label ignores a heritage from Jewish Russia or the Chinese Philippines?
          It all becomes clearly foolish and will soon seems totally bizarre.  But what do we do meanwhile?  Dominique-René de Lerma 

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